Who Was Jackie Robinson?
Robinson came to be the initial Black professional athlete to play Major League Baseball in the 20th century when he took the field for the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947. Throughout his decade-long job, Robinson distinguished himself as one of the video game’s most skilled and also amazing gamers, tape-recording a remarkable.311 job batting average. He was additionally a singing civil rights protestor.
Jack Roosevelt Robinson was born on January 31, 1919, in Cairo, Georgia. The youngest of 5 kids, Robinson was raised in loved one poverty by a solitary mom.
He went to John Muir Secondary school in Pasadena, The golden state, and also Pasadena Junior University, where he was an excellent athlete as well as played four sports: football, basketball, track and also baseball. He was called the area’s The majority of Belongings Gamer in baseball in 1938.
Robinson’s older brother, Matthew, inspired Robinson to seek his talent and love of athletics. Matthew won a silver medal in the 200-meter dashboard– just behind Jesse Owens– at the 1936 Olympic Gamings in Berlin.
Robinson continued his education and learning at UCLA where he came to be the university’s first student to win varsity letters in 4 sporting activities. In 1941, in spite of his athletic success, Robinson was forced to leave UCLA simply timid of graduation as a result of monetary hardship.
He moved to Honolulu, Hawaii, where he played football for the semi-professional Honolulu Bears. His period with the Bears was interrupted when the United States became part of World War II.
From 1942 to 1944, Robinson worked as a second lieutenant in the United States Army. However, he never saw fight.
Throughout bootcamp at Ft Hood, Texas, Robinson was apprehended and court-martialed in 1944 for refusing to quit his seat and also relocate to the rear of a segregated bus. Robinson’s exceptional online reputation, integrated with the efforts of buddies, the NAACP and numerous Black papers, lost public light on the injustice.
Eventually he was acquitted of the costs and got an ethical discharge. His nerve and also moral objection to racial segregation were precursors to the impact Robinson would have in Major League Baseball.
Partner and Kid
In the early 1940s, Robinson fulfilled nurse-in-training Rachel Isum when they were both participating in UCLA. The couple was married on February 10, 1946.
As Robinson made his occupation in the big leagues, the couple encountered mounting racism, from insults to death threats. Later on in life, both Jackie and Rachel came to be proactively associated with the civil rights movement.
Jackie and also Rachel had 3 youngsters with each other: Jack, Sharon and also David. Rachel said that she and Jackie mosted likely to wonderful lengths to create a nurturing home that sheltered their kids from bigotry.
In 1971, the couple’s earliest kid, Jack Robinson Jr., passed away at the age of 24 in a cars and truck crash. Their middle kid, Sharon Robinson, is a writer and also specialist for Major League Baseball, while their youngest kid, David Robinson, is a coffee farmer in Tanzania.
Signing Up With Big League Baseball
After his discharge from the Army in 1944, Robinson started to play baseball professionally. At the time, the sport was segregated, and also African Americans and also white people played in separate organizations.
Robinson began playing in the Leagues, however he was quickly selected by Branch Rickey, head of state of the Brooklyn Dodgers, to aid incorporate Major League Baseball. He joined the all-white Montreal Royals, a farm team for the Brooklyn Dodgers, in 1946. Robinson later on transferred to Florida to begin springtime training with the Royals.
Rickey recognized there would certainly be difficult times ahead for the young professional athlete, therefore made Robinson pledge to not fight back when confronted with bigotry. Rickey also personally tested Robinson’s responses to the racial slurs as well as insults he knew the gamer would endure.
Initially of his career with the Dodgers, Robinson’s will certainly was tested. Some of his brand-new teammates objected to having an African American on their group. People in the crowds occasionally jeered Robinson, and also he and his family got hazards.
Despite the racial abuse, particularly at away games, Robinson had an impressive beginning with the Royals, leading the International Organization with a. 349 batting average as well as.985 fielding percentage. His effective year resulted in his promotion to join the Dodgers.
Robinson played his first video game at Ebbets Field for the Brooklyn Dodgers on April 15, 1947, making background as the very first Black professional athlete to play Major League Baseball in the 20th century.
The harassment proceeded, however, most especially by the Philly Phillies and their manager, Ben Chapman. During one infamous video game, Chapman and also his team screamed derogatory terms at Robinson from their dugout.
Several players on opposing groups threatened not to bet the Dodgers. Also his very own colleagues threatened to sit out.
However Dodgers manager Leo Durocher notified them that he prefer trade them than Robinson. His commitment to the gamer set the tone for the rest of Robinson’s profession with the team.
Others safeguarded Robinson’s right to play in the big leagues, including Organization Head of state Ford Frick, Baseball Commissioner Happy Chandler, Jewish baseball star Hank Greenberg and Dodgers shortstop as well as team captain Pee Wee Reese.
In one case, while fans bothered Robinson from the stands, Reese walked over and also place his arm around his teammate, a motion that has actually become famous in baseball history.
Rookie of the Year
Robinson did well in putting the bias as well as racial rivalry apart as well as showed everyone what a talented player he was. In his very first year, he batted.297 with 12 home runs and aided the Dodgers win the National League pennant.
That year, Robinson led the National League in taken bases and also was picked as Rookie of the Year. He remained to wow fans and also movie critics alike with outstanding feats, such as an exceptional.342 batting average throughout the 1949 season. He led in taken bases that year and made the National League’s Most Prized possession Player Honor.
Robinson quickly ended up being a hero of the sport, even amongst previous doubters, and was the subject of the popular song, “Did You See Jackie Robinson Struck That Ball?” His success in the big leagues unlocked for various other African American gamers, such as Pouch Paige, Willie Mays, as well as Hank Aaron.
A phenomenal base runner, Robinson stole house 19 times in his career, establishing a league document. In 1955, he assisted the Dodgers win the Globe Collection. Before he retired, he became the highest-paid professional athlete in Dodgers’ background.
Throughout his occupation in Major League Baseball, from 1947 to 1956, Robinson attained the following statistics:.
-.311 batting average (AVG).
– 137 home runs (HUMAN RESOURCES).
– 4877 times at bat (ABDOMINAL).
– 1518 hits (H).
– 734 runs batted in (RBI).
– 197 taken bases (SB).
-.409 on-base portion (OBP).
-.883 on-base plus slugging (OPS).
In his decade-long occupation with the Dodgers, Robinson as well as his group won the National League pennant a number of times. Ultimately, in 1955, he helped them attain the ultimate victory: winning the Globe Collection.
After stopping working previously in four other collection matchups, the Dodgers beat the New york city Yankees. He aided the group win another National Organization pennant the adhering to season.
In December 1956, Robinson was traded to the New York Giants, yet he never ever played a game for the group. He retired on January 5, 1957.
After baseball, Robinson came to be active in service as well as continued his work as a lobbyist for social adjustment. He worked as an exec for the Chock Complete O’ Nuts coffee firm and also restaurant chain and assisted establish the African American-owned Flexibility Financial Institution.
In 1962, Robinson was the initial African American to be inducted right into the Baseball Hall of Popularity. In honor of his heritage, in 1972 the Dodgers retired his jersey number of 42.
Robinson was a singing champ for African American professional athletes, civil rights as well as various other social and also political causes, serving on the board of the NAACP up until 1967. In July 1949, he indicated regarding discrimination before your home Un-American Activities Board.
In 1952, he openly called out the New york city Yankees as a racist organization for not having actually broken the color obstacle 5 years after he started playing with the Dodgers. In his later years, Robinson continued to lobby for higher racial integration in sporting activities.
Robinson died from heart problems as well as diabetes difficulties on October 24, 1972, in Stamford, Connecticut. He was 53 years of ages.
Jackie Robinson Foundation
After Robinson’s fatality in 1972, his spouse Rachel established the Jackie Robinson Structure dedicated to recognizing his life and also job. The structure helps young people in need by offering scholarships and mentoring programs.
Jackie Robinson Day
First established in 2004, April 15 is referred to as Jackie Robinson Day in the MLB, honoring the day that he damaged baseball’s shade barrier.
In 1978, a 10 square-block park in the Harlem neighborhood of New york city City was christened Jackie Robinson Park to honor the baseball player.
In 1950, Robinson starred in The Jackie Robinson Tale, a biographical flick directed by Alfred E. Environment-friendly and also co-starring Ruby Dee as Robinson’s other half.
Robinson’s life was the topic of the acclaimed 2013 Brian Helgeland motion picture 42, which starred Chadwick Boseman as Robinson as well as Harrison Ford as Branch Rickey. In 2016, filmmaker Ken Burns premiered a docudrama about the baseball legend on PBS.